Role of Information and Communications Technology in Development of Smart Cities and Smart Buildings
Dr. Rakesh Mowar
Principal, LNCT Bhopal, India
Abstract- This paper describes the role of information and communications technology for intelligent cities with reference to civil engineering domain related to buildings. In it the area of civil engineering and its specializations are described. Then the application of information communications technology is integrated with civil engineering. Finally the use of information and communications technology is applied to smart cities and smart buildings. In conclusion mention is made of the systems software and consulting organization.
Keywords- civil engineering, information and communications technology components, smart cities, green buildings and smart buildings, design aspect, applications.
Civil Engineering is the mother of all engineering .It involves construction of building varying from residential, commercial, multi storey building, heavy structural building, public utility building, educational and health buildings. It also includes transportation of goods and passengers through cableways, roadways, travelators, tunnels, railways, highways, waterways, inland and seaways, water supply and sewage. It also deals with disposal and waste from both human and animals, agriculture and industries, flow of electric supply and gas supply etc.
Multi purpose hydraulic structures are used for conveying water for transportation to power houses, dams, bridges, canals intake structure, thermal power plants, steel plants and many more.
Civil Engineering has a number of specializations in it. These specializations range from surveying, building sciences, fluid mechanics and hydraulic, water resources and irrigation, structural engineering and construction techniques, geotechniques etc.
Refer Figure1: Integration: Engineering and Technology
- SMART CITIES
Presently there is a rush for development of smart cities nationwide. In addition to the master plan of the city development includes not only buildings, roads and commercial lines but also nowadays they include efficient flow of masses in the minimum possible time overcoming all obstacles and hindrances found in their path. These days real time system, sensors and digital electronic communication systems, smart phones, smart computers and smart televisions are making our lives comfortable and smarter.
Smart cities involve three basic components namely the people, processes and technology. They are a key success for development of smart city. The people or the masses of the town participate so their attributes and the requirements are to be collected by surveying with objectives of gathering information and analyzing data.
The objectives, the strategies and goals, responsibilities, roles and plans are to be made for having policy for the smart city.
The process of e-governance has to be initiated by which feedback may be taken from citizens and they should be participating in town level activities. These complaints should be redressed through electronic media effectively.
Refer Figure2: Systems Components of Smart City
- INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
The information and communications technology includes two things, the information should be gathered and appropriate communication technology should be used whereby the life of the citizens can be improved, Officers of the government and business organization should interact directly with their customers effectively. The overall object is to increase the quality of life and quality of urban services so that they perform better, understand the hazards and remove inefficiency of the system and to attain economy, cost reduction optimization of the resources used and overall improve the interaction of the citizens with the government.
Information technology makes efficient use of physical resources of the town for all-round development of citizens and facilities. Applications of digital electronics communication system will go a long way in making the cities and the citizens smarter. Wi-Fi technology will also help in getting access to the system components of the organization.
Refer Figure3: Communication Technology Components
- GREEN BUILDINGS
AND SMART BUILDINGS
Smart building involves efficient use of green building. The green building involves sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality and innovation and design process. Smart building includes data networking, power management, free access, lighting control and good infrastructure.
The following attributes are common to both green and smart city.
- Optimization of energy
- Better performance
- Control of gases
- System design and innovation
Refer Figure4: Integration of Green Buildings and Smart Buildings.
Smart buildings involve conservation of energy and its significant savings. Smart building includes green roofs and green walls. It makes use of standards for heat, ventilation and air conditioning by use of advance compressors. Smart building technology involves the use of smart decisions and smart solutions. The energy consumed in a building should be economized and minimum possible floor space should be efficient in use as power energy makes the building smarter. In smart building, there should saving of electric energy, saving of fuels, enhancement of comfort. Facility analyst and the facility manager shall have to share dash boards for analyzing and controlling building parameters. The parameters include occupancy, day light and night light vision, heat, temperature, humidity etc.
Refer Figure5: Application of Information Communication Technology for Smart Building with Smart Television
There is green building council for different countries. It involves a rating system which is mark of excellence for green buildings, and it has established a Leadership in Energy and Environment Design system called LEED system. The LEED system has rating system for house also called eco-house wherein heat recovery and ventilation system is adopted.
Smart building aims at reducing in consumption of energy, increase in operations and a high rate of return of investment, reduction in risks involved and approach to real time information and communications technology. The people should accept the cutting edge technology and expect the building to be smart. It includes the system integration, advanced building management tool, high degree of automation, sensors, management of energy, management of enterprise data and data analysis, applications of latest software and incorporation of IT tools. The increase in the capacity of the building can be analyzed through rain water harvesting, exterior shedding, water reclamation, water reuse, renewable energy, sun tracking system etc.
In advanced building many software are available for energy management, building performance analysis, alarm management system, automatic fault detection. The detail network design system involves standard database structure such as SQL or ODBC, Oracle or DB2.
ICT online is a mobile friendly international consulting organization which specializes in highways, structures, airports, urban and rural infrastructures. It is a mobile friendly service using broadband internet connection through voice of internet protocol (VoIP).
 Dr. Rakesh Mowar “Application of Systems Analysis for Management of Geotechnical Engineering Projects” Ph.D.Thesis unpublished.
This paper is dedicated to my parents Late Mahesh Charan Mowar and Late Maya Mowar to whom I owe my present status and to my family members Mrs Shalini Mowar, Ankur Mowar and Ankita Mowar.
I acknowledge with thanks the assistance received from Mr. Rajkumar Sharma, Faculty LNCT Bhopal and Ms. Rachana Rao, Office Assistant, LNCT Bhopal for type setting and diagrams setting and ppt settings for the present shape of this paper and its presentation.
Figure1: Integration: Engineering and Technology
Figure 2: Systems Components of Smart City
Figure 3: Information Communications Technology Components
Figure4: Integration of Green Buildings and Smart Buildings
Figure5: Application of Information Communication Technology for Smart Building with Smart Television